25 May 2021

Prediction on Ischemic Heart Disease using Machine Learning Approaches

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a terrible experience that occurs when the flow of blood severely reduced or cut off due to plaque deposited on the inner wall of arteries that brings oxygen to the heart muscle, leads to the ischemic heart attack (IHA). Atherosclerosis i.e. plaque deposition on the inner wall of arteries is a silent process, has no critical symptoms to get a warning before IHD. For this reason, early detection is very important for the proper management of patients prone to IHD. In this thesis work, it was tried to predict IHD on the basis of patient history, symptoms and pathological findings of patients with heart disease using computational intelligence. Total 506 patient’s data with a maximum of 151 features including historic, symptomatic and pathologic findings were collected from AFC Fortis Escort Heart Institute, Khulna, Bangladesh. First, it was tried to identify the significant risk factors of IHD i.e. the features which are significantly correlated with IHD by applying different feature selection techniques. Then IHD was predicted using significant risk factors by applying different classifier algorithms. The significant risk factors of IHD were determined by using Chi-Square correlation, Ranking the features based on information gain and Best First Search techniques. Among 151 collected features only 28 features showed high correlations with IHD based on 0.05 significance level and information gain 1% or above. 10-fold cross-validation technique was applied with different classification algorithms e.g. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Bagging, Logistic Regression, and Random Forest to predict IHD using the most significant 28 risk factors. IHD prediction accuracy was observed ranges from 95.85% to 97.63% with different classifier algorithm. Random Forest showed the best prediction performance with an accuracy of 97.63%. The same processing technique and classification algorithms were applied to the Cleveland hospital dataset to validate our prediction approach. The observed IHD prediction accuracy was 80.46-83.77% without applying the proposed processing techniques, but the accuracy degraded to 79.80-81.46% applying the proposed processing techniques. The Cleveland hospital data contains 303 patients’ data with only 13 features whereas the collected dataset contains 506 patient’s data with 28 nicely correlated IHD risk factors. This is why the proposed method is not suitably applicable to Cleveland dataset.

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